Information security management is a broad field, and encompasses many specialties within the security profession. ISACA categorizes these management activities into four areas, as defined in the most recent Job Task Analysis. Each area is broken into discrete tasks, and each task is further broken down into the supporting knowledge required to perform each task. In order to qualify for the CISM certification, the CISM candidate must have a minimum of five years of information security experience, of which three or more years must be information security management work. Note that the requirement does not dictate that the individual must have a specific position that designates them as a CISO or any other specific security management title. However, for those that do not have this designation, the role that they perform must clearly map to tasks within 3 of the 4 management areas as defined in the CISM Job Task Analysis. While less common these days, there are still organizations that have individuals in hybrid roles that include duties of an information security manager along with other unrelated responsibilities. This is particularly true in smaller organizations that do not have sufficient staff for an information security department or dedicated role. Note that audits, reviews, gap analysis, or other activities that assess the effectiveness of an information security program that is managed by others do not fully meet the standard for information security management. For more information, see the question below regarding audit experience.